Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Plato on the Existence of Negative Forms Essay -- Plato Philosophy Neg

Plato on the Existence of Negative Forms The question of the origin and nature of evil in the world has preoccupied philosophers throughout history. The ancient philosopher Plato does not directly address this question in his writings, but it can be argued that the logic of his theory of forms demands the existence of forms that are negative in meaning, such as the evil and the bad. When discussing his theory of imitation, Plato alludes to the principle that whenever there are many things of the same nature, there is one form for that nature. In several passages, Plato makes mention of many negative things. It can be debated, however, whether or not the negative has a positive ontological character of its own for which there can be a form. The several senses in which an object can be considered negative must first be distinguished before the texts of Plato can be analyzed. It will be shown that, although Plato makes references in the Republic to a common nature amongst many negative things, the supposition of a negative form is not in harmony with the hierarchal structure of forms that depends on the good, which is also presented in the Republic. A solution to this problem will be presented and analyzed. In order to understand why it is argued that negative forms must exist according to Plato's logic, one must first understand the meaning of form for Plato. Plato thinks that forms are separate and eternal entities that exist apart from the sensible world. Plato thinks that objects in the sensible world imitate a particular form and that form makes them what they are. Plato writes, "As you know, we customarily hypothesize a single form in connection with each of the many things to which w... ...rendon Press), 167-9. [4] Ross, 168. [5] Ross, 168. [6] Plato, Statesman, trans. Seth Benardete (Chicage: University of Chicago Press, 1986), 262 d. [7] Plato, Republic, 491 d 3. [8] Plato, Republic, 608 e 3. [9] Plato, Republic, 609 a 4-7. [10] Plato, Republic, 610 b 4-6. [11] Plato, Republic, 382 b. [12] Plato, Republic, 476 a. [13] Plato, Republic, 507 b 10-11. [14] Plato, Republic, 509 b 11-c. [15] Plato, Republic, 508 c-e. [16] Plato, Republic, 508 b ? 509 a 3. [17] Plato, Republic, 509 b 7 - 7 [18] Plato, Republic, 379 a 6 - c. [19] I.M. Crombie, An Examination of Plato?s Doctrines: Plato on Knowledge and Reality (New York: The Humanities Press), 283. [20] Crombie, 283. [21] Crombie, 284. [22] Plato, Statesman, 262 d. [23] Ross, 169. [24] Plato, Republic, 491 d 3. [25] Crombie, 284.

Monday, January 13, 2020

The Study of English Reading Strategies for English Majors in Ielts

The Study of English reading strategies for English majors in IELTS English Education Department of College of Foreign Languages Capital Normal University June 2012 Contents I. Introduction†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦3 II. Literature Review†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. †¦. 4 2. 1 The definition of reading †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 4 2. 2 The definition of English reading strategy †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 5 2. 3 The reading test items in IELTS †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚ ¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 6 2. 4 The English reading strategies in IELTS †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦7 III. Research Methodology†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦7 3. 1 Instruments †¦ †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 3. 2 Research Setting and sampling †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 9 3. 3 Design†¦. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 9 3. 4 Analyzing Procedures†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦9 IV. Results and Discussion†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 10 4. 1 Results †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦10 4. 2 Discussion†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. †¦12 V. Conclusion†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 13 5. 1 Major findings†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦13 5. 2 Implications†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦14 5. 3 Limitations†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 15 5. 4 Future studies†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦15 VI. References†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. â⠂¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦15 Appendix †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 7 I. Introduction 1. Background of the research Nowadays, more and more Chinese students choose to study or travel abroad, so English becomes more and more important. International English Language Testing System (IELTS) is an international standardized test of English language proficiency (Wikipedia, 2011). It becomes one of the most popular exams for those who want to go abroad. In IELTS, reading is the most difficult part for many candidates, because in one hour candidates should finish 3 passages and 40 test items. And most candidates have problems either understanding the subject matter or completing all the sections. Keller, 2010) Even English majors, can not do well in the reading test. They usually lose many scores in readi ng test. Almost every examinee wants to improve their standard of reading. Although they try to use some strategies which were taught by their teachers or trainers, they can’t use these strategies effectively. Many scholars (Li, 2010;Luo, 2010;Shen, 2011;Yao, 2011;Tierney, Robert J. 2000; Readence, John E. , Hosenfeld, Carol, 2003) from home and abroad have noticed that the use of English reading strategies are very important and useful for candidates to do the English reading texts in IELTS.They also find that how to use various strategies effectively. For example, skimming is one of the most frequently used strategies in IELTS. â€Å"Skimming refers to reading a paragraph quickly to get an idea of what it is about, without trying to understand its details. † said by Dr Vivek(2009). 2. Significance of the research Although teachers and trainers have introduced many strategies of English reading, most of the students, even English majors who take the exam of IELTS, alw ays make many mistakes in the reading tests. In fact, many scholars (Li, 2010;Luo, 2010;Shen, 2011;Yao, 2011;Tierney, Robert J. 2000; Readence, John E. Hosenfeld, Carol, 2003) or teachers have already concluded various strategies for English reading test. For example, students or examinees should use the strategy â€Å"skimming† to reading a paragraph or a passage quickly to get an idea of what it is about, without trying to understand its details. However, many students, even English majors, just know the meaning of â€Å"skimming†, but cannot apply this strategy correctly and effectively to their reading test. In addition, because the time is limited, examiners do not have time to use the reading strategies he has learnt. Or maybe they haven’t developed the reading skills in his former study.Therefore, research in this area will be of great significance. This research aims to find out English Majors’ condition and the existing problem in using the readi ng strategies in IELTS. For students and examinees, it will help them to understand the basic meaning of each strategy, to form their own reading skills, and to use various strategies effectively in different kinds of reading test items IELTS and to make less mistakes in the test. 3. Hypothesis This study aims at investigating what the reading strategies are, when they should be used and how to use various strategies effectively.It can provide some suggestions of using reading strategies for English majors to take the exam of IELTS. 4. Research questions †¢ What are the English reading strategies in IELTS for English majors? †¢ When various strategies can be used in different reading test items in IELTS? †¢ How to use various strategies in IELTS reading test effectively? II. Literature Review 2. The definition of reading Far from being a â€Å"passive† skill, reading, is in fact, an active process in which readers relate information in the text to what they alr eady known. Knowledge of language allows readers to identify the printed words and sentences.The purposes of good readers are meaningful that they do not decode each letter or each word. Instead, they take in chunks of the text and relate it to what they know. Traditionally, many psychologists and teachers have insisted that reading is nothing more than decoding writing symbols to sounds. (i. e. figuring out what the printed word says). Others traditionally have insisted that reading involves not only decoding from print to sound, but also comprehending the written material. Forrest-Pressley and Waller (1984) felt that reading is not merely a decoding process nor it is solely a comprehension.Reading process is not just a â€Å"decoding plus comprehension† but reading involves even more. It involves at least three types of skills: decoding, comprehension and nature reading strategies (Forrest-Pressley & Brown, 1984; Brown, 1980). Besides, reading traditionally has been conside red as cognitive task. An unfortunate consequence of such a view of reading is that there has been no room for concern for the â€Å"executive control† that is done by a skilled reader. Only recently have several authors (e. g. Baker Brown, 1984; Brown, 1980; Myers & Pairs, 1928) suggested that reading might involve metacognition as well as cognition.Johnson (1983) has attempted to approach the issue of accessing comprehension from a rational point of view. He first considers what reading comprehension is, and then considers what factors influence it and its assessment— including reader and text characteristics. He comes to a definition of reading comprehension: That is reading comprehension is considered to be a complex behavior, which involves conscious and unconscious uses of various strategies, including problem— solving strategies, to build a model of the meaning, which is assumed to have intended.The model is constructed using schematic knowledge structure s and the various systems, which the writer has given (e. g. words, syntax, macrostructure, social information) to generate hypotheses, which are tested using carious logical and pragmatic strategies. Most of this model must be inferred, since text can never be fully explicit and, in general, very little of it is explicit because even the appropriate intentional and extensional meanings of words must be inferred from their context. (1983). 2. The definition of English reading strategyIt would be helpful to review a concise definition of reading strategies, but unfortunately, there is no consensus among researchers. At least, three problems persist. First, it is not clear how to differentiate reading strategies from other processes that might be called thinking, reasoning, perceptual study or motivational strategies. Weinstein and Mayer (1986) defined cognitive strategies as a broad array of actions that help to control behavior, emotions, motivation, communication, attention, and co mprehension.Although each kind of strategies might influence reading, not all researchers would classify them as reading strategies. A second problem concerns the scope strategies— are they global or specific? Levin (1986) argued that strategies include multiple components that must be carefully analyzed, whereas Derry and Murphy (1986) distinguished strategies as general learning plans that are difficult to demarcate when they are embed in complex sequences of behavior or hierarchies of decision. The third problem involves internationality and consciousness, considering these opposing viewpoints. To be a strategy, the means must be employed deliberately, with some awareness, in order to produce or influence the goal. † (Wellman, 1988) â€Å"Also, it is now recognized that strategies function at its best occurs without deliberation. It is more reflexive than voluntary† (Pressley, Forrest-Pressley & Elliot-Faust, 1988) Since the 1970s there has been no shortage of L2 (Second Language Learning) theorists advocating teaching students to use a variety of reading strategies in order to read better.There strategies run argument form the traditionally recognized reading skills of skimming and scanning, contextual guessing or skipping unknown words, tolerating ambiguity, reading for meaning, critical reading and make inferences, to more recently recognized strategies text structure (Block). Researchers in the L1 (First Language Learning) and L2 fields have demonstrated that strategy used is different in proficient readers. More proficient readers use them in different ways. 2. The reading test items in IELTS †¢ TURE/FALSE/NOT GIVEN †¢ SUMMARY †¢ HEADING MUTILPCHIOCE †¢ COMPLETION †¢ SHORT ANSWER †¢ TABLE †¢ MATCHING In our research, we will focus on the two kinds of reading test items in IELTS: TURE/FALSE/NOT GIVEN and MUTILPCHIOCE. In IELTS, these two kinds of test items are used with high frequency. Many of the examinees in IELTS often make mistakes in these two kinds of test items. Therefore, we will carry out research of reading strategies on these two parts and figure out whether English majors use reading strategies to do these two kinds of test items in IELTS. 2. The English reading strategies in IELTSSearch reading is the strategy likely to be used by candidates to help them find specific information and answer as quickly and accurately as possible in reading examinations. Search reading is defined by Urqhuart and Weir (1998) as the strategy used to locate and comprehend discrete pieces of information on predetermined topics in order to answer a set of questions or provide data. According to the authors, the readers do not necessarily have to start by reading the whole text to get the gist. Moreover, search reading seems to be compatible at different points with scanning, skimming and ‘careful global reading’ (i. . comprehension of the main ideas in the text). That is, t he first step in search reading involves the process of locating (scanning) the words that are noted in a question and matching them to the same or related information in the text. Skimming is then used to select the specific text that seems important to answer the question. Consequently, the text selected will be read more carefully to find out if it definitely answers the question, which means careful global reading will then take place (by reference to the parts of the text selected and not to the whole text, as discussed above).Search reading is also addressed by other authors such as Dreher (1992), Guthrie and Kirsch (1987), Symons and Specht (1994), as well as Enright et al. (2000) specifically in relation to English language reading examinations. III. Research Methodology 1. Instruments In this research, we will use â€Å"individual interview† and â€Å"think aloud† as our research methods. The main advantage of face-to-face or direct interviews is that the rese archer can adapt the questions as necessary, clarify doubt and ensure that the responses are properly understood, by repeating or rephrasing the questions. Peter,2010) The researcher can also pick up nonverbal cues from the respondent. Any discomfort, stress and problems that the respondent experiences can be detected through frowns, nervous taping and other body language, unconsciously exhibited by any person. We will design several questions related to our topic. A notable advantage of think aloud protocols over individual interviews as a data collection method with respect to information behavior is that they are at least able to elicit data at the time of the experience in question and the accuracy of the material contributed will therefore not be affected by lapses in memory. Manguel, 2008) To investigate whether a search reading strategy is used in reading examinations, a questionnaire asked 40 international postgraduate students who had done IELTS which strategies they used w hen reading text and answering questions in the academic reading task. The questionnaire was composed of a single question, which asked participants to choose the steps they followed and to put them in order (as illustrated in Appendix A). These steps were based on the steps recommended for the IELTS reading module (Jakeman & McDowell, 2001), but three steps were added to extend the scope of the questionnaire.Participants reported that they underlined the key words in the questions (23 participants), scanned the passage to find the key words (23 participants) and read the text around the key word carefully after finding it (30 participants). These results, therefore, suggest that the most common strategy used when reading under time pressure in examinations is compatible with search reading (as described at the beginning of this section). Furthermore, it seems that two distinct aspects of selective processing are involved in search reading: perceptual and conceptual processing of te xt.This distinction is based on Masson's (1982, 1985) characterization of cognitive processes in skimming stories. Applying Masson's theory to English language reading examinations, candidates may look for visual features, i. e. key words, in the text relevant to the question, which is a perceptual process. Having located the pertinent information, they then more carefully read the phrases containing the key words so that the answer can be found, accurately comprehended and extracted to answer the question, which is a conceptual process. 2.Research Setting and Sampling We did our research in Capital Normal University. In this research, we chose three English majors to be the interviewees. First, the three interviewees attended the interview one by one. They were asked some questions about English reading strategies. These might help us researchers know more about the interviewees and their knowledge, opinion and recognition of reading strategies. Then, the three interviewees attende d the think-aloud one by one. We researchers chose one piece of IELTS reading passage for the interviewees to finish.During the test, they were asked some questions about the test items and their feelings about reading test while they were doing the test. The whole passage: Search begins for ‘Earth' beyond solar system (shown in the appendix) 3. Design During the interview, we will ask interviewees to answer some questions about reading strategies, such as their recognition of English reading strategies, the usage of reading strategies, the effect of using reading strategies, etc. During the think-aloud, we will give each of them a piece of IELTS reading passage, and ask them to finish all the exercises after the passage.When they are doing the exercise, we will ask them one or two questions of each test item about English reading strategies. 4. Analyzing Procedures Step 1: Select three English majors from the CNU in different levels. Step 2: The three interviewees will be int erviewed individually. Several questions about reading strategies will be asked. Their answer will be record in a excel file. Step 3: The three students will attend the think-aloud interview one by one. During they do the reading test, several designed questions will be asked. Step 4: Collect their answers and compare with each other. | |When did you begin |Will you use reading |Reading strategies can help|Would you like to |How about your | | |Do you know what is reading|to know reading |strategies during reading |you improve your English in|know more about |reading scores? | | |strategies? |strategies? |texts? Please lay out these|which aspects? |reading strategies? | | | | | |by using frequency. | | | | | |Candidate A | |The first question: replace the original words by using the four choices. | |Question 2 – 5: rereading the text, and then finding out the key sentences and translating. | |The first question: using exclusive method to leave out C and D, and then using sca nning. | |Question 2 – 5: using skimming strategy firstly to find out these statements, and then using scanning strategy to get the right | |answers. From the above table, we can find out exclusive method, skimming and scanning are three reading strategies most frequently used by candidates. Usually, when candidates finish multiple choice questions, they would like to use exclusive method to ignore one or two interferential choices. And then they can choose possible answer from rest two choices, so they have 50% opportunity to get right answer. Question 2 to question 5 are true or false questions. Candidates used skimming to find out where are these sentences in the original text.When they focused on one sentence, they will use scanning to search for certain words to figure out whether the statement is true or false or not given. 4. Discussion The purpose of the study was to investigate the condition of English reading strategies for English majors in IELTS. The findings clea rly suggest that most students have learnt and used the strategies in their reading. For the multiple choice items in the IELTS exam, scanning is the most useful strategy. We can find out the relational part of the key words in the item.The students who have learnt the reading strategies outperformed those who didn’t know the reading strategies in every aspect as shown by their performance during the think-aloud part. (The first student and third student have learnt English reading strategies before, while the second student did not know reading strategies before. So he used longer time finishing the same number items but failed in the exam. ) They showed particular strengths in the IELTS reading section, suggesting that the reading strategies they have been taught really help the students to understand and focus on the test of their reading.It also seems to be the case that skimming should become a natural first step to any kind of reading readers do —- articles, book s, newspapers, and even advertisements or bus schedules( , 1999). In the short answer questions part, skimming is becoming more helpful for examinees. Skimming the text means reading very quickly. Just look at the headings, subheadings and the first lines of each section or paragraph. The examinees need to catch the key points of the test in limited time, so skimming can save up much time than reading the test one word after another.Another reason for the benefits of reading strategies may be that scanning is a search for information which is often some specific information ( , 1997). This supports and adds to the findings of Wang Li (2011), who showed similar results for English reading strategies. In the true/false/not given items, scanning can not be more proper than any other strategies. Scanning a text means looking for a specific piece of information or specific words. Ignore the information that is not relevant to your purpose.Scanning is a useful strategy to apply when the q uestions ask for factual information. This study has taken a step in the direction of justifying the effect of English reading strategies for English majors in the IELTS. These reading strategies can not only promote students’ understanding when they do reading exercises, but also improve students’ reading ability. It may be the case that students who do not familiar with the reading strategies may be easily fail the IELTS compared to those who have already learnt and use reading strategies before.It is also not clear whether skimming and scanning are the most useful reading strategies for IELTS, such as note-taking and summary would succeed to the same extent. The approach outlined in this study should be replicated with other students in other classes, as well as at other levels in order to be able to recommend the effect of English reading strategies for IELTS for English majors. V. Conclusion 5. Major findings 1. English reading strategies in IELTS From the whole r esearch, we find that although there are so many reading strategies in reading text, informants use skimming and scanning most frequently.In IELTS reading test, there are 8 types questions — true or false questions, summary, heading, multiple choice, completion, short answer, table and matching, while, scanning and skimming can be used in most kinds of questions. In other words, scanning and skimming are the basic reading strategies in IELTS reading test. 2. The proper way to use various reading strategies in IELTS It is generally believed the first passage is easier than the second and third. Sometimes, however, this doesn't hold true. So, before attempting the passages, informants do an overview to get an idea about the subject matter.Different strategies can be adopted to attempt different passages. These may be skimming and scanning, reading intensively and a hit-and-trial method. In this research, we will just focus on two kinds of reading strategies—-skimming and scanning. The formats of the questions in the IELTS are: multiple choice, gap-fills, short answer questions, matching and true/false/not given. Skimming the text means reading very quickly. Just look at the headings, subheadings and first lines of each section or paragraph. Also notice the key words repeated throughout the text.The main purpose is to understand the gist — the general idea of the text. When you need to give a title of the test, skimming can help you. Also, matching part acquire you to skim the test in a short time. Scanning a text means looking for a specific piece of information or specific words. Ignore the information that is not relevant to your purpose. Scanning is a useful strategy to apply when the questions ask for specific factual information. For example, in the multiple choices, gap-fills, true/false/not given items, scanning can not be more helpful than any other strategies. . Implications As it can be seen in the findings and discussion, English majors do know some English reading strategies while they are doing reading tests. In IELTS, the reading strategies for different kinds of reading test items are various. So this research may help English majors understand more about the English reading strategies for different reading test items in IELTS. They may get higher scores in IELTS after knowing and making full use of the various reading strategies. 5. Limitations In all, the research findings are limited by the very nature of the method used.For example, the interviews are finished only in one university and the interviewees are only three. The data may not be accurately. The study of the English reading strategies and the reading test items in IELTS are limited. We just conduct the research on some of the strategies and two kinds of test items. However, due to the physical condition, time limitation, etc, the limitations cannot be overcome. 5. Further studies In the future, we may focus on the study of the rest kinds of English reading strategies and reading test items.It is believed that reading strategies come to help for students or examinees to take exams. The further studies may be helpful for English majors to do reading tests better in IELTS. VI. References 1. Camboune, B. (2001). Why do some students fail to learn to read? Ockham’s razar and the conditions of learning. The Reading Teacher, 54, (8), 784-786 2. Csaba Csikos and Janos Steklacs, Metacognition-Based Reading Intervention Programs Among Fourth-Grade Hungarian Students, 2010 3. Davis, M. , & Lyons, S. (2001). Improving reading †¦Reading: ideas from two teachers. Voices from the Middle 8, (4), 51-57. . Dr Vivek. (2009) Tips for Reading, IELTS Section AIPPG, Retrieved from http://www. aippg. com/ielts/reading-tips-ielts. html 5. Dr Vivek. (2009) Tips for the Reading Test, IELTS Section AIPPG, Retrieved from http://www. aippg. com/ielts/strategies%20for%20reading. htm 6. Dreher, M. J. (1992). Searching for information in t extbooks. Journal of Reading, 35 (5), 364–371. Web of Science ® Times Cited: 14 7. Enright, M. K. , Grabe, W. , Koda, K. , Mosenthal, P. , Mulcahy-Ernt, P. & Schedl, M. (2000). TOEFL 2000 reading framework: A working paper. TOEFL Monograph Series Report No. 17.Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service. 8. Forrest-Presley and Waller (1984) Metacognition About Reading Is Related to Reading Performance: A comment About Jacobs and Paris Educational Psychologist Volume 24, Issue 2, 1989 9. Guthrie, J. T. & Kirsch, I. S. (1987). Distinctions between reading comprehension and locating information in text. Journal of Educational Psychology, 79 (3), 220–227. CrossRef,Web of Science ® 10. Hosenfeld, Carol A Preliminary Investigation of the Reading Strategies of Successful and No successful Second Language Learners http://eric. ed. gov/ERICWebPortal/search/detailmini. sp? _nfpb=true=EJ162478=no=EJ162478 11. Hurst,C. O. (2000). Guided reading can strengthen comprehension skil ls. Teaching Pre k-8 31, (2) 70-71 12. Jakeman, V. & McDowell, C. (2001). IELTS practice tests plus: Teaching not just testing. Harlow, Essex: Longman. 13. Johnson, P. (2002). Strategies that work: Teaching comprehension to enhance understanding. Instructor, 111 (8), 30-43 14. Keller, J. M. (2010). IELTS Reading Strategies. Tcyonline. Retrieved from http://www. tcyonline. com/betterthink/ielts-reading-test-strategies 15. Macmilland Dictionary ttp://www. macmillandictionary. com/dictionary/british/IELTS 16. Masson, M. E. J. (1982). Cognitive processes in skimming stories. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 8 (5), 400–417. CrossRef,Web of Science ® 17. Masson, M. E. J. (1985). Rapid reading processes and skills. In G. E. MacKinnon & T. G. Waller (Eds. ), Reading research: Advances in theory and practice, Vol. 4. (pp. 183–230). New York: Academic Press. 18. Symons, S. & Specht, J. A. (1994). Including both time and accuracy in defining text search efficiency. Journal of Reading Behavior, 26 (3), 267–276.Web of Science ® Times Cited: 5 19. Tierney, Robert J. ; Readence, John E. Reading Strategies and Practices: A Compendium. Fifth Edition. http://eric. ed. gov/ERICWebPortal/search/detailmini. jsp? _nfpb=true=ED448405=no=ED448405 20. Urqhuart, S. & Weir, C. (1998). Reading in a second language: Process, product and practice. London: Longman. 21. Wikipedia http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/IELTS 22. . (2011) , ,Retrieved from http://bj. xdf. cn/publish/portal24/tab16996/info647081. htm 23. [J]. . 010. 10 24. [J]. ( )2010. 9 25. [J]. ( ). 2011. 7 26. [J]. . 2011. 12 †¢ Appendix 1. Individual Interview Questions: 1. Do you what is reading strategies? 2. When do you begin to learn about reading strategies? 3. , , Do you usually use the reading strategies in doing reading tests? What kind of strategies did you use? Please put them in order according to frequency. 4. Do you think reading strategi es do help in your reading test? And how? 5. , What’s your reading score in the extensive reading? 2. The whole passage: Search begins for ‘Earth' beyond solar system Staff and agencies Wednesday December 27, 2006 Guardian Unlimited 1. A European spacecraft took off today to spearhead the search for another â€Å"Earth† among the stars. 2. The Corot space telescope blasted off aboard a Russian Soyuz rocket from the Baikonur cosmodrome in Kazakhstan shortly after 2. 20pm. 3. Corot, short for convection rotation and planetary transits, is the first instrument capable of finding small rocky planets beyond the solar system.Any such planet situated in the right orbit stands a good chance of having liquid water on its surface, and quite possibly life, although a leading scientist involved in the project said it was unlikely to find â€Å"any little green men†. 4. Developed by the French space agency, CNES, and partnered by the European Space Agency (ESA), Austr ia, Belgium, Germany, Brazil and Spain, Corot will monitor around 120,000 stars with its 27cm telescope from a polar orbit 514 miles above the Earth. Over two and a half years, it will focus on five to six different areas of the sky, measuring the brightness of about 10,000 stars every 512 seconds. . â€Å"At the present moment we are hoping to find out more about the nature of planets around stars which are potential habitats. We are looking at habitable planets, not inhabited planets. We are not going to find any little green men,† Professor Ian Roxburgh, an ESA scientist who has been involved with Corot since its inception, told the BBC Radio 4 Today programme. 6. Prof Roxburgh said it was hoped Corot would find â€Å"rocky planets that could develop an atmosphere and, if they are the right distance from their parent star, they could have water†. 7.To search for planets, the telescope will look for the dimming of starlight caused when an object passes in front of a star, known as a â€Å"transit†. Although it will take more sophisticated space telescopes planned in the next 10 years to confirm the presence of an Earth-like planet with oxygen and liquid water, Corot will let scientists know where to point their lenses. 8. Measurements of minute changes in brightness will enable scientists to detect giant Jupiter-like gas planets as well as small rocky ones. It is the rocky planets – that could be no bigger than about twice the size of the Earth – which will cause the most

Saturday, January 4, 2020

Global Warming and Cryptocurrencies - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 2 Words: 626 Downloads: 10 Date added: 2019/03/14 Category Ecology Essay Level High school Tags: Global Warming Essay Did you like this example? Introduction Cryptocurrencies have progressed in our society and have come a long way as a trading alternative. Digital currencies like Bitcoin or Ether have made themselves the most popular growing unit value and proved to be the most successful and legitimate transaction. Although cryptocurrencies have massive and multiple benefits, it does not exist without its fallbacks. The environmental impact of digital currencies have become to rise under question and scientists are concerned for the potential outcomes that will arise in the nearer future. Unlike the dollar or other various currencies like the pound, these virtual â€Å"coins† are not tied to a bank, instead they are â€Å"mined† by computers in data centers that use excessive and huge amounts of energy. as of December, 2017 one of the most vastly used digital currency, Bitcoin (BTC) estimately uses about 32 terawatts of energy every year, which is equivalent to powering about three million households in the U.S. The process of mining BTC and other digital currencies uses a staggering amount of energy and the numbers are only rising especially for the black market and illegal businesses. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Global Warming and Cryptocurrencies" essay for you Create order Meteorologist, Eric Holthaus argues, â€Å"bitcoin is slowing the effort to achieve a rapid transition away from fossil fuels†. The burning of coal and other fossil fuels is currently a major source of electricity and power worldwide, not only for cryptocurrencies in the business aspect but also for other hosts. Researchers at the University of Cambridge have indicated that much of the electricity used in mining operations has come from insufficient coal based power plants that were constructed in rural areas of the country in advance of large construction projects many of which were never materialized. Coal burning is a significant contributor to climate change in the environment and the result of carbon dioxide which is produced by the process. Not only does coal burning impact climate change but it also promotes air pollution. When coal is burned it releases a number of airborne toxins and pollutants. Mercury, sulfur dioxide, lead, nitrogen oxides, particulates, and various other metals are all included when comes to chemicals and toxins released into the air we breathe in everyday. This impacts the health of the occupants on earth, which includes us humans. Health impacts can range from asthma and breathing difficulties, to brain damage, heart problems, cancer, neurological disorders, and premature death. Coal impacts the basic necessities needed to sustain life like water, for example. More than a million tons of coal ash is produced from burning charcoal every year. More than half of that waste ends up in local ponds, lakes, landfills, and other sites where, overtime, it can contaminate waterways and drinking water. Conclusion Global warming is a serious, long term and a problematic global impact. Chemically, coal is mostly carbon, which, when burned, reacts with oxygen in the air to produce carbon dioxide which ultimately is a heat trapping gas. When carbon dioxide is released into the atmosphere, it acts as a blanket, warming the earth above normal limits. Although the environmental impact will not be sudden and quick, mathematically, the more and more Bitcoins are mined, energy will be required and which will process it more and intentionally polluting and damaging the world we live in. There are several ways to induce environmental healing by searching for alternatives. With the recent and rapid growth of cryptocurrencies in general, one might wonder how in the world there might be an alternative or solution to this problem. The alternatives can focus on two different and separate aspects, one that issues with the way cryptocurrencies are mined, or another approach that deals with the renewable energy powered mining operations. One of the ways to fix or alleviate the problem is to use renewable energy for power mining operations.

Friday, December 27, 2019

What You Have 2 Parotid Glands - 779 Words

You have 2 parotid glands. One is on each side of your face, in front of your ears. Parotid glands make spit (saliva). Sometimes, the parotid glands develop infections or growths (tumors) which can block the flow of saliva from the gland. This can cause swelling. Sometimes, tumors can get in the way of the facial nerve that passes through the parotid gland. In some of these cases, parotidectomy is necessary. Parotidectomy is surgery to remove all or part of a parotid gland. LET YOUR CAREGIVER KNOW ABOUT: †¢ Allergies to food or medicine. †¢ Medicines taken, including vitamins, herbs, eyedrops, over-the-counter medicines, and creams. †¢ Use of steroids (by mouth or creams). †¢ Previous problems with anesthetics or numbing medicines. †¢ History of bleeding problems or blood clots. †¢ Previous surgery. †¢ Other health problems, including diabetes and kidney problems. †¢ Possibility of pregnancy, if this applies. RISKS AND COMPLICATIONS Usually, problems do not develop after a parotidectomy. However, they can occur. Possibilities include: †¢ Infection. †¢ Bleeding. †¢ Scarring. †¢ Numbness or weakness in the face. If this does develop, it usually gets better in a few months. Permanent numbness or weakness is rare. †¢ Leaking saliva. It can collect in the wound area and leak through the surgical cut (incision). This can happen after the drain has been taken out. It can happen after the stitches are gone, too. It usually clears up on its own. †¢ Frey s syndrome.Show MoreRelatedThe Testing Of Salivary Biomarkers1986 Words   |  8 Pagessamples to their doctor or dentist to be tested for a variety of conditions which can be detected based on particular proteins or enzymes, et cetera. The hope is that these tests could lead to early disease detection and treatment. 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Using Myra Estrin Levine’s conservation model: what would have been the focus of your assessment? How did the illness affect you and the rest of your family? Levine’s Conservation Model  is focused in promoting adaptation and maintaining wholeness using the principles of conservation. The model guides the nurse to focus on the influences and responses at the organismicRead MoreHomeostasis: White Blood Cells4216 Words   |  17 Pagesconstant D) receiver 2.What is the normal pH value for body fluid? A) 7.15-7.25 * B) 7.35-7.45 C) 7.55- 7.65 D) 7.00-7.35 E) 6.5-7.5 3.An example of the urinary system working with the respiratory system to regulate blood pH would be A) When you hold your breath the kidneys will remove CO2 from your blood B) If you exercise a lot your urine will become more acidic * C) If you develop emphysema the kidneys will remove fewer bicarbonate ions from circulation D) If you hyperventilate the

Thursday, December 19, 2019

Obesity Is A Medical Condition Essay - 1320 Words

Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fast has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health and it usually does. Obesity leads to reduced life expectancy and increased health problems. Increased risk of heart disease, high blood sugar, high blood pressure, certain cancers and other chronic conditions are usually the problems that obesity may cause. Inactive lifestyle, poor environment, genes and family history, medicine, smoking and so on are factors which could cause obesity. In this research, early life risk for obesity, Lack of sleep, Lack of energy balance are the three main factors i would mainly explore in this research. Obesity could be held up in people’s early life. It is easy to see that many children nowadays are overweight. A result shows in a total of 8234 children attended a clinic at age 7. 5493 children who attended the clinic were obese. A further study shows that a increasing in birth weight was independently and linearly associated with increasing prevalence of obesity in young. Several studies have shown that the birth weights of populations continually increase over time. Mostly the increases are toward bigger babies. In a data collection in US, it is shown that up to one out of every five children in the US is obese, and most of them were obese when they were born. The number is continuing to rise. Infant feeding and weaning practice is another factor that cause early obesity. Researchers from OkayamaShow MoreRelatedObesity Is A Medical Condition1708 Words   |  7 PagesPart 1 Obesity is a medical condition where there is the accumulation of excess fat in the body such that the individual’s health is affected negatively resulting in an increase in health problems and a reduced life expectancy. The measurement of obesity is with the use of the BMI where the individual’s weight is divided by their height square, and this should not be above 30kg/m2. In the United States, obesity remains the one of the leading cause of death as it is associated with heart disease (CdcRead MoreObesity Is A Medical Condition2163 Words   |  9 Pagespublic in the topic of obesity has been rising because of recent examples like heart disease, stroke and some other chronic diseases that caused by obesity. Obesity is a medical condition which is defined as unusual or excessive fat accumulation that presents a risk to health. Obesity happens because of having too much body fat, and the formula to calculate the body mass index (BMI) is the square of a person’s height (in meters) divide his or her weight (in kilograms). Obesity is different from overweightRead MoreChildhood Obesity Is A Medical Condition1109 Words   |  5 Pages Childhood obesity is a medical condition that is found in children, teenagers and middle aged people. Everyone has a unique body shape and structure that is engineered right for them but sometimes the body will store more body fat than required. If an individual stores more fat than an average person is supposed to, then they can be categorized as obese. Childhood obesity can be identified seeing if the weight of a child is well above that of an average for a child s height and age. For anRead MoreObesity : A Serious Medical Condition876 Words   |  4 PagesObesity is a serious medical condition that requires treatment to lower the risk of metabolic and cardiovascular disorders. However, one in three people in the United States is clinically obese (Overweight and Obesity Statistics) and 10-25% of obese individuals are labeled metabolically healthy (Bluher). Obesity is clinically diagnosed with a body mass index (BMI) of a score of 30 or greater in reference to the total weight in people’s body compared to their height (Overweight and Obesity Statistics)Read MoreChildhood Obesity Is A Medical Condition2494 Words   |  10 PagesChildhood obesity is a medical condition in which affects children of all ages sometimes even into their adulthood. This condition occurs when a child is very well above the normal weight set for his or her age and height. One of the biggest troubles in the world is childhood obesity because the extra weight a child carries arou nd leads them down a path of a number of health issues that were once confined only to adults such as diabetes, high cholesterol, and high blood pressure. It may also leadRead MoreChildhood Obesity : Becoming A Medical Condition863 Words   |  4 Pages Childhood Obesity Childhood Obesity is a well known issue in the United States. To some individuals childhood obesity is considered to be a medical condition while others may argue that is not. Childhood obesity is the condition where excessive body fat negatively affects a child s wellbeing or health. Being obese is different from being overweight, although both mean that a person’s weight is greaterRead MoreChildhood Obesity : A Serious Medical Condition Plaguing Youth1765 Words   |  8 PagesAustin Brown Dr. Rodney Beaulieu Human Development 101 11 December 2015 Childhood Obesity Childhood obesity is currently a serious medical condition plaguing youth and adolescents all around the world, especially in developed nations. Childhood obesity occurs when ones weight or body fat exceeds what is normal for ones height and age. Children who are overweight are often troubled with poor self-esteem and depression. Overweight children are subjected to health issues such as diabetes, high bloodRead MoreChildhood Obesity : A Serious Medical Condition That Affects Children And Adolescents Essay1116 Words   |  5 PagesMy enquiry question will identify the leading causes of childhood obesity in New Zealand. Childhood obesity is a serious medical condition that affects children and adolescents (Mayo Clinic, 2014). It occurs when a child is well above the normal weight for his or her age and height (Mayo Clinic, 2014). This enquiry question will mainly focus on children who are obese in New Zealand. Through survey, The 2012/13 New Zealand Health Survey found that 1 in 9 c hildren aged 2–14 years were obese (11%),Read MoreChildhood Obesity : A Serious Medical Condition That Affects Children And Adolescents991 Words   |  4 Pagescurrent adolescent obesity rates continue, predictions say by 2035 there will be more than 100,000 additional cases of heart disease linked to obesity (Collins 1). Childhood obesity has become more of an epidemic over the last few years. Although there are debates of childhood obesity being a problem, several factors contribute to childhood obesity such as parental feeding styles and fast food, nonetheless, which can all be prevented. Childhood obesity is a serious medical condition that affects childrenRead MoreChildhood Obesity : A Serious Medical Condition That Affects Children And Adolescents Essay1736 Words   |  7 Pagesatrocious disease like cancer nor is it learning or behavioral problems—it is obesity! The Mayo Clinic, a nonprofit organization committed to clinical practice, health education and research, defines child hood obesity as â€Å"a serious medical condition that affects children and adolescents, that occurs when a child is well above the normal weight for his or her age and height† (Mayo). The Mayo Clinic goes on to say that childhood obesity is particularly troubling because it starts kids off on an early path

Wednesday, December 11, 2019

Pathophysiology and Management Advances †MyAssignmenthelp.com

Question: Discuss about the Pathophysiology and Management Advances. Answer: Introduction: Primary care for chronic illness is very complicated as it is multifactorial in nature. The patients health may be affected by different factors. To provide high quality and safe care the nurse must consider the patient and associated clinical needs (Helgeson Zajdel, 2017). The essay deals with the case study of Philip, 67 years old male, with primary diagnosis of Parkinsons disease. The case study will be analysed to identify the two priorities of care. The aim of the essay is to develop comprehensive care plan for him applying the clinical reasoning cycle. It is the tool for nurses to develop the goal driven nursing care, considering the spiral of series of linked clinical encounters (Dalton, Gee Levett-Jones, 2015). It will help in prioritisation of care while integrating different aspects of the Philips clinical condition. Prioritisation and care plan involves use of clinical reasoning and decision making skills (Papastavrou, Andreou Efstathiou, 2014). To understand the patients health status it is necessary to consider the present situation (Dalton, Gee Levett-Jones, 2015). In the given case study, Philips 67-years old male is presented to the medical ward after losing balance and fall. After two weeks he was diagnosed with Parkinsons disease. His symptoms were numbness in his hands and difficult speech. He feels everything is spinning around. Further, process may involve collection of cues and information from the patients health history, previous assessment and further assessment (Dalton, Gee Levett-Jones, 2015). The patient history shows presence of high cholesterol. He has surgical history of Left knee arthoplasty. As a child he had tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy. The discharge history shows patient under variety of medication for Parkinsons disease. At the time of admission he had upper limb tremor that was more pronounced on right side. The patient experiences drooling, fatigue and sleepy episodes during the day time. The patients history also highlights the feelings of blue and fluctuations of mood, global bradykinesia, and increasing hypoponia. The cumulative effect of these may have manifested as difficulty in working with hot water or making tea. His occuputational history showed him as semi-retired worker. He worked part time at tea store. It may be associated with serious financial implications. His social life is poor. He is separated from his wife and his children do not support enough. It may be related to emotional issues if unaddressed. These conditions if untreated may lead to other comorbidities such as hypertension, diabetes, paralysis, chronic pulmonary disease and others (Lubomski et al., 2014). It is necessary to process this information, to prioritize the care. It involves use of critical thinking and relation of information to clinical knowledge (Dalton, Gee Levett-Jones, 2015). Philips fails to coordinate at work may be due to lack of dopamine. The loss of neurons and cells from the substantia nigra of the brain leads to decreased dopamine secretion. Dopamine is responsible for impairing the basal ganglia in low levels, thereby affecting movement and coordination of activity (Schulz-Schaeffer, 2015). Gait is the most telling signal of Parkinsons disease. In normal condition the patient can walk from head to toe but in Parkinson disease the patient does not lift the feet at all. As the gait shuffling becomes more pronounced, the patient suffers from fall. It is known as freezing of gait (Reichmann et al., 2016). Falls may be due to failure in sustaining the waking velocity as in normal condition for longer distances (Schulz-Schaeffer, 2015). Parkinsons disease results in deteriorating rhythm control, bilateral coordination of gait, Sleep scaling, gait symmetry, and decrease the dynamic postural control. It may be the rationale for motor symptoms, upper limb tremor, and bradykinesia and sleepy episodes. It is manifested as drooling, confusion, and dropping of equipments at work (Schulz-Schaeffer, 2015). Fatigue presented by Philips is the insidious symptom of Parkinsons disease. It is also known as Parkinsons apathy where the individual fails to initiate projects or follow complex interactions and have short term memory loss. Even simple daily life activities like walking, results in energy drain, causing fatigue (Serrano-Dueas et al., 2018). The pathophysiology is however not very clear. The absence of dopamine in the Parkinsons prevents protection of cochlea and result in hearing loss (Lai et al., 2014). Philips is thus experiencing increasing hypoponia. The slurred speech in Philips may be due to dysarthria that is impairment of muscles required for speaking. It may have caused by hypoponia that result in weakening of muscles and weak voice (Rusz et al., 2015). Parkinsons has profound impact on the emotional and the psychological wellbeing. The out of proportion emotional reactions in Philips may be due to biochemical changes wrought by the disease. Depression and denial of the reality of the situation are the adverse outcomes. It in turn starts a chain of reaction that manifests as spiral effect. Starting with sleep disorder, to concentration issues, the apathy increases (Reichmann et al., 2016). Therefore, the mood swings in Philips may be the cause of cumulative effect of emotional impact as well as motor function decline. Depression also causes the memory impairment and slow response (Schrag et al., 2015). High cholesterol in the patient is risk factor for hypertension and other comorbidities (Mark Somers, 2016). In order to prioritise the care the main health issues of the client must be identified. Based on the above analysis and from the synthesis of fact, it can be concluded that the main health issues are impaired physical mobility and speech and hearing impairment. The other symptoms such as gait, balance, tremors, fatigue, slow response are all interrelated to this main health issues. Sequentially, it is hampering the activities of daily life of Philips as well as social life. Interventions are required to minimise the risk associated with these health issues. The main risks associated this health issue is risk of injury (Lubomski, Rushworth Tisch, 2014). Addressing these issues will help Philip manage his daily life activities. Therefore, the nursing care priorities applying the clinical reasoning for Philips are- 1 improvement in functional mobility within the limitations of disease and 2 prevent risk of injury. Hence, to fulfil the two priorities of care comprehensive nursing care plan will be developed based on evidence. An action plan is required to fulfil the priorities of care to yield positive health outcomes (Dalton et al., 2015). The action plan for maintaining functional mobility and reducing the complications may involve patient education on safe techniques of movement. For instance, rocking from sideways may help in leg movement. Bradykinesia and tremors may increase difficulty in getting out of chair. The patient may be instructed to move to edge of seat, take arm support followed by standing position (via rocking). To decrease muscle rigidity, the patient may be provided with warm bath and messages (Van der Eijk et al., 2013). To prevent the risk of injury it is necessary to assess ambulation and movement to plan appropriate patient centered interventions. During ambulation, the patient may be recommended to swing arms and lift heels. It will assist in gait and prevent falls (Van der Eijk et al., 2013).The patient may be instructed to maintain an upright posture to maintain functional mobi lity. Philips may be requested to look up while walking. It will prohibit the patient to have the stoped posture and prevent collision with objects while walking. In order to improve balance, a wide base gait may be instructed (Tomlinson et al., 2012). To prevent injury, patient education may involve teaching Philips to turn in wide arcs. It will prevent crossing of legs over one another and falls. Further, teach range of motion exercises. The patient may be referred to physical therapist for safe exercise program. Philips will be trained to use facial muscle for exercises for effective communication of needs. He may be assisted to perform daily stretching activities. This intervention is effective in improving strength, flexibility and balance (Van der Eijk et al., 2013). The patient may be educated to undertake rehab services instead of staying at house. To integrate the Philips needs the patient may be monitored for non verbal messages and ensure calm and relaxed communication as speech and hearing is weakened. Positive body language and soft tone of voice will be used communicate care needs and prevent Philipss anxiety (Gulanick Myers, 2013). The patient will be educated to talk slowly in short phrases and provide him with hea ring aid, for addressing care needs (Van der Eijk et al., 2013). Pharmaceutical interventions may include use of dopamine agonists or levadopa for motor symptoms. Cholinesterase inhibitors may improve depression (Connolly Lang, 2014). Evaluating the nursing action plan is mandatory to ensure effectiveness of interventions and modify in case of adverse outcomes (Dalton, Gee Levett-Jones, 2015). The evaluation may involve ensuring that home environment is free of barriers. The patient must be safe from environmental hazards. Philips to be monitored during exercises for adherence to guidelines. He will be monitored for speech and hearing cooping. Assess about knowledge of potential hazards and its elimination. Client will be assessd to show willingness to join rehabilitation service. On reflection it appears that the patient may have challenges in adhering to treatment. The patient may be evaluated for anxiety and aggression during treatment. He may be referred to cognitive behavioural therapist for controlling irrational thoughts and behaviours. It will also reduce depression (Troeung, Egan Gasson, 2014). In conclusion, the essay helped to understand the process of prioritising the care for chronic illness, applying the clinical reasoning cycle. It is an effective method to rationalise the illness symptoms and identify the main health issue. In case of Philips, the mobility impairment and weak speech and hearing are the main health issues. Both increases risk of fall and injury. Therefore, nursing interventions are developed for maintaining functional mobility and reducing risk of injury. The interventions are based on evidence and will yield positive health outcomes. References Connolly, B. S., Lang, A. E. (2014). Pharmacological treatment of Parkinson disease: a review.Jama,311(16), 1670-1683. Dalton, L., Gee, T., Levett-Jones, T. (2015). Using clinical reasoning and simulation-based education to'flip'the Enrolled Nurse curriculum.Australian Journal of Advanced Nursing, The,33(2), 29. Gulanick, M., Myers, J. L. (2013).Nursing Care Plans-E-Book: Nursing Diagnosis and Intervention. Elsevier Health Sciences. Helgeson, V. S., Zajdel, M. (2017). Adjusting to chronic health conditions.Annual review of psychology,68, 545-571. Lai, S. W., Liao, K. F., Lin, C. L., Lin, C. C., Sung, F. C. (2014). Hearing loss may be a non?motor feature of Parkinson's disease in older people in Taiwan.European journal of neurology,21(5), 752-757. Lubomski, M., Rushworth, R. L., Tisch, S. (2014). Hospitalisation and comorbidities in Parkinson's disease: a large Australian retrospective study.J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, jnnp-2014. Mark, A. L., Somers, V. K. (2016). Obesity, hypoxemia, and hypertension: mechanistic insights and therapeutic implications.Hypertension,68(1), 24-26. Papastavrou, E., Andreou, P., Efstathiou, G. (2014). Rationing of nursing care and nursepatient outcomes: a systematic review of quantitative studies.The International journal of health planning and management,29(1), 3-25. Reichmann, H., Brandt, M. D., Klingelhoefer, L. (2016). The nonmotor features of Parkinson's disease: pathophysiology and management advances.Current opinion in neurology,29(4), 467-473. Rusz, J., Bonnet, C., Klemp?, J., Tykalov, T., Baborov, E., Novotn, M., ... R?Ã… ¾i?ka, E. (2015). Speech disorders reflect differing pathophysiology in Parkinsons disease, progressive supranuclear palsy and multiple system atrophy.Journal of neurology,262(4), 992-1001. Schrag, A., Horsfall, L., Walters, K., Noyce, A., Petersen, I. (2015). Prediagnostic presentations of Parkinson's disease in primary care: a case-control study.The Lancet Neurology,14(1), 57-64. Schulz-Schaeffer, W. J. (2015). Is cell death primary or secondary in the pathophysiology of idiopathic Parkinsons disease?.Biomolecules,5(3), 1467-1479. Serrano-Dueas, M., Bravo, R., Merchn, T., Serrano, M. (2018). Fatigue in Parkinsons disease: Metric properties of the fatigue impact scale for daily use (D-FIS), and its impact on quality of life.Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery. Tomlinson, C. L., Patel, S., Meek, C., Herd, C. P., Clarke, C. E., Stowe, R., ... Ives, N. (2012). Physiotherapy intervention in Parkinsons disease: systematic review and meta-analysis.Bmj,345, e5004. Troeung, L., Egan, S. J., Gasson, N. (2014). A waitlist-controlled trial of group cognitive behavioural therapy for depression and anxiety in Parkinsons disease.BMC psychiatry,14(1), 19. Van der Eijk, M., Nijhuis, F. A., Faber, M. J., Bloem, B. R. (2013). Moving from physician-centered care towards patient-centered care for Parkinson's disease patients.Parkinsonism related disorders,19(11), 923-927.

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

PhysioEx 9.0 Exercise free essay sample

3. The filtrate flows from the Bowmans capsule into the renal tubule called the proximal convoluted tubule then into the loop of Henle, and finally into the distal convoluted tubule: a. Proximal Convoluted Tubule b. Loop of Henle c. Distal Convoluted Tubule 4. When the radius of the afferent arteriole was decreased, the pressure and the filtration rate both decreased. 5. When the radius of the afferent arteriole was increased, the pressure and the filtration rate both increased. 6. When the radius of the efferent arteriole was decreased, the pressure and the filtration rate both increased. 7. When the radius of the efferent arteriole was increased, the pressure and the filtration rate both decreased. Activity 2: 1. When you increase the blood pressure, the glomerular capillary pressure and the glomerular filtration rate will also increase. 2. As the pressure increased, the urine volume increased proportionally. 3. Increased blood pressure can be a result of increased blood volume. For this reason, an increase in urine volume would stabilize blood volume. We will write a custom essay sample on PhysioEx 9.0 Exercise or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page 4. If you close the one way valve, pressure will increase in the Bowmans capsule and filtration rate will decrease. 5. With increased pressure and the valve closed, the filtration rate decreased but the glomerular pressure stayed the same. Urine output was zero. Activity 3: 1. Both increasing the afferent arteriole radius and decreasing the efferent arteriole resulted in an increase in glomerular filtration rate. 2. When both arteriole radii changes were implemented, glomerular filtration rate and pressure rose above baseline values. 3. Increasing the afferent radius or decreasing the efferent radius would compensate for lowered blood pressure. 4. Increasing the afferent radius had a greater effect than decreasing the efferent radius because there was a greater increase in glomerular pressure. 5. Intrinsic extrinsic mechanisms result in changes to the afferent efferent arterioles to maintain glomerular filtration rate. Activity 4: 1. When the solute concentration gradient in the interstitial space was increased, the urine volume decreased. 2. When the solute concentration gradient in the interstitial space was increased, the concentration of the urine increased. 3. The urine volume will increase in the absence of ADH in the collecting duct. 4. Most of the tubular filtrate is reabsorbed to prevent fluid loss and maintain homeostasis. 5. Yes, the reabsorption of solutes affects water reabsorption because water will follow the solutes by osmosis. Activity 5: 1. As glucose carriers were added, the glucose concentration in the bladder increased. 2. Glucose is first reabsorbed by secondary active transport at the apical membrane of PCT cells and then via facilitated diffusion along the basolateral membrane. 3. When the number of glucose carriers becomes great enough, all of the glucose is reabsorbed. 4. The absence of insulin or decreased sensitivity to the hormone, leads to excess glucose in the blood so the carriers reach their maximum transport levels. Activity 6: 1. When aldosterone was added, the urine volume slightly decreased. Aldosterone results in increased sodium and water reabsorption and increased potassium secretion. 2. When ADH was added, the urine volume dramatically decreased. The addition of ADH resulted in the potassium being more concentrated because the volume of urine decreased. 3. Aldosterone release (from adrenal cortex) is stimulated by decreased blood pressure and the need to reabsorb sodium. 4. The addition of BOTH aldosterone and ADH caused urine volume to decrease. 5. Aldosterone release (from the posterior pituitary gland) is stimulated by decreased blood pressure and the need to reabsorb water into the blood to increase blood pressure. ADH favors the formation of concentrated urine – ADH causes an increase of water permeability in DCTs collecting ducts. 6. ADH has the greater effect on urine volume. ADH is responsible for fluid retention. Aldosterone is primarily increasing sodium uptake and potassium secretion. 7. No, the urine concentration will NOT vary in the absence of ADH. 8. In order to reabsorb sodium without affecting urine volume, you would need to increase the amount of aldosterone and decrease ADH.